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2013高考英语核心词汇,高频词汇大全

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发表于 2013-5-17 18:47:18 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 gs007 于 2013-5-17 18:49 编辑

           2013高考英语核心词汇,高频词汇大全---学科空间站  

一、语法角度归纳词汇:
1.只能接动名词,而不能接不定式作宾语:
口诀:建议避免冒险;介意错过训练;厌恶推迟完成;承认逃脱抵抗;考虑保持忍受;想象宽恕欣赏。
suggest, avoid, risk, mind, miss, practise, dislike, delay, finish, admit, escape, resist, consider, keep, stand, imagine, forgive, enjoy
2.只能接不定式,而不能接动名词作宾语:
口诀:打算将来负担起一切,就得尝试失败,拒绝假装努力。要学会选择,决心设法完成计划。
      父母会同意提供帮助,要承诺达到他们的期望要求。
want, intend, mean, afford, attempt, fail, refuse, pretend, try, learn, choose, decide, determine, manage, plan, agree, offer, help,   promise, hope, wish, expect, ask
3.既可接动名词也可接不定式作宾语,意义不同:
口诀go on 表继续,接doing 同一事,接to do 换一个;
regret,forget , remember, doing 表做过,跟to do 要去做;
mean doing 意味着,mean to do 打算做;try doing 试着做,try to do设法做
4.既可接动名词也可接不定式作宾语,意义相同:
口诀need, want, require, 还有一个deserve, 接不定式用被动,接doing 主动就能表被动;
      Worth后接doing, 也用主动表被动,worthy 则不同,改用被动用被动。
need, require, want, deserve + doing / to be done  (需要做)
be worth doing, be worthy of being done, be worthy to be done    (值得做)
5.接动名词作宾语,接不定式作宾补:
口诀:禁止、建议和允许, doing作宾语,接to do 作补语。
forbid / advise / allow / permit doing sth;  forbid / advise / allow / permit sb. to do sth.
(禁止,建议 允许某人做某事)
6.接宾语从句,从句使用虚拟语气:
1). 在动词order / demand / insist/ command / advise / suggest / request / require 等词后的宾语从句中,谓语动词用 should+ 动词原形,使用虚拟语气。
口诀:每词有特点,宾语从句中,(should) + 动词原形会出现。insist, suggest谨慎用,还要把词义细分辨。
insist (坚持要某人做某事 用虚拟;坚持说 、坚持认为 则不用), www.sxkjz.com
demand, desire, require, request, order, propose, command , ask (要求), advise, prefer,
suggest(建议用虚拟,暗示,表明则不用)
2).动词wish后接的宾语从句一律使用虚拟语气:
口诀wish后的从句用虚拟,三种情况要梳理。主句时态不用管,从句时间是关键。
      与现在事实不符,用过去;与过去事实不符,用过去完成;与将来事实不符,用would, could 等接动词原形就可以。
7.动词本身主动形式表达被动含义:
有些动词如open, close, sell, wash, burn, write等用来陈述主语的内在性质时,要用主动形式表达被动含义。 主语一般为事物,且常与状语连用。
口诀:干柴废纸易燃烧;商店学校关又开;机器运转很正常;布料耐洗笔流畅;书报货物很畅销;房间厨房好打扫;饭菜做得格外香。
burn, close, open, run, wash, write, sell, clean, taste, cook

二、搭配角度总结词汇:

1.搭配活跃的名词:
Time
ahead of time 提前  at a time  一次   at all times 一直,经常  at one time 曾经  at times 有时候
behind time晚点,不及时  behind the times 落伍 in no time 立刻,马上 in time 及时,迟早 for a time
一度for the first time  第一次from time to time  有时,时常for the time being 暂时  on time准时
way:
all the way 一路上,自始自终  by the way   by way of 经由,经过  in the / one’s way挡道,妨碍   in a way
在某种程度上 on one’s way to 的途中  in any way无论如何,在任何情况下in no way决不   in one’s
own way自行其事,随心所欲   in this way
case:
in any case   in case   in case of   in no case   in that case   in this case   in the case of关于,就来说
hand:
at hand 在手边 hand in hand   in hand控制住 on hand 手头有… by hand  on one hand  on the other hand
2.搭配活跃的动词:
bring:
bring about产生,导致 bring along 带来 bring back 使回想起bring out 使显现出 bring in 引进,赚得
bring up教育,呕吐 bring on引起,导致,生长 bring down 使降落 bring off使成功,圆满完成
break:
break down 垮掉,出故障  break in闯入,插嘴  break into闯入  break out 爆发,发生  break through
突破  break up 打碎,终止  break off  打断,中断  break away from 脱离
call:
call at拜访(某地)  call back 召回,回电话  call for 去接,需要   call in 邀请,召请   call off 取消   
call on / upon 拜访某人  call up打电话  call out 召唤出动
carry:
carry off 夺走    carry on 继续    carry out  履行   carry through完成,使度过难关
come:
come about 发生    come across 偶然遇到   come back 回来,忆起   come on  进行  come out 出版,
开花   come to oneself  苏醒  come up with 提出,想出,赶上---学科空间站
hold:
hold back 隐瞒,阻止,抑制   hold off 使远离   hold on 不挂断  hold out 伸出,支持,维持     
hold up 举起,使停滞
get:
get across 越过,被理解  get away with 逃脱   get back  回来  get off 从。。。下来   get on / along with
进展,相处   get out  出来 get through 穿过,完成,接通  get to   抵达get over  克服  get up
give:
give away 赠送,泄露   give back 归还   give in to 屈服   give up 放弃   give off 发出,散发   
give out 分发,筋疲力尽   give way崩溃
go:
go after 追求   go ahead  先行,请吧  go back  回去   go down 下来   go in for 爱好    go off with
离开,逃走     go on     go out of从。。。出来 go through  通过,完成     go over  复习   go without
没有。。。也行    go up 上升,上涨
keep:
keep away from 远离      keep back  阻止,抑制   keep in touch with 保持联系    keep on 继续
keep out of 使避开    keep up with   赶上  keep off 远离
look:
look after    look back 回顾   look down on / upon 轻视,看不起    look for    look forward to 期盼
look into 调查  look out for 小心 look through 浏览  look up 查找,仰视    look up to尊敬
make:
make for 走向,促成     make out 弄清,理解    make up     make sense   
put:
put aside 储蓄    put away  储存,收拾  put down 放下,镇压,写下   put forward 提出   put off 推迟
put on 上映    put out  伸出,熄灭  put through 完成,接通    put up    put up with忍受
run:
run after追赶     run  away from / away 逃跑    run into  撞上,偶遇   run out of 用尽    run over
碾过 ,轧过  run through 跑过,贯穿
set:
set about 开始    set aside 放一边,留出,不顾   set back 推迟    set down 记下   set off 出发,引爆
set out  动身,着手   set up 创立,树立
take:
take away 带走    take back 取回   take down 取下   take in 吸收,欺骗    take off 脱下,起飞,事业
成功    take on 承担,呈现出    take out 取出    take over 接管   take up   (时间,空间),从事   
turn:
turn on  打开   turn off  关上  turn up 放大音量,出现  ---学科空间站 turn down 放下音量,拒绝    turn in上交
turn against 反对 turn out 结果是,证明是  turn away 避开 turn over 翻转  turn to  翻到,求助于,转向
3.搭配活跃的介词、副词:
at:
at heart内心里,本质上  at will 随意,任意    at sight 一见  at present 目前   at a distance 隔一段距离
at a loss    not at all   不知所措 at any cost 不惜一切代价 at sea
come at 向。。。袭击   run at 冲向,向。。。攻击   stare at     glance at    knock at 敲门   smile at
aim at 向。。。瞄准    shout at    look at  glare at    laugh at    point at    shoot at    call at
beyong:
beyong repair 无法修理   beyong belief 不可相信   beyong understanding 无法理解  beyong control无法
控制     beyong doubt 毫无疑问  beyong imagination 难以想象    beyong description 难以描述
down:
burn down 烧毁   cut down  消减,砍伐  pass down  传下来  calm down 平静下来   settle down 安家
tear down 拆毁,拆除  slow down  慢下来  lie down 躺下   die down 平息,消失
from:
come from 来自  date from 追溯   die from 死于    escape from 逃出   hear from 收到来信   
learn from 向。。。学习    result from 起因于  choose from 选自   separate from 分离开来  suffer from
忍受   be absent from 缺席   be diferent from 与众不同   be far from 远离,远非
for:
run for  竞选    ask for 要求得到    long for  渴望   care for  关心,喜欢   search for 查找   
apply for  申请   stand for 代表   hunt for 寻找  charge for 收费,要价     answer for  对。。。负责
fight for 为。。。而战   prepare for 为。。。准备     reach for 伸手去拿   pay for 花钱买
be anxious for 急于做    be eager for  渴望   be bad for 有害于   be good for 有利于    be famous for
be fit for  适合于  be grateful for  对。。。心存感激  be late for    be ready for    be sorry for   
be responsible for   be suitable for    be useful for    for fear 以免   for fun 为了乐趣   
for pleasure    for sale 供出售   
in:
in spite of     instead of     in nature 本质上   in return 作为回报   in turn 轮流,转而,反过来   
in fact     in search of   in other words   in a word     in brief
in memory of   in exchange for 交换   in terms of  就。。。而论  in place of    in short   in doubt 怀疑
in favour of    支持  in honour of    in face of    in need of   in store 保存着,准备着
result in    join in     fill in     cut in 插入    drop in 拜访    succeed in
on:
live on    look on 旁观    depend on    wait on  侍候  insist on    impress on  留下印象  move on
继续移动,往前走    rely on   try on    试穿
on duty 值班  on foot  步行   on fire 着火    on show 展览   on strike  罢工  on purpose  故意  
on watch  监视,观察  on the contrary 相反 on earth 究竟,到底   on sale    on business因公,出差
out:
out of sight  看不见  out of reach  够不着  out of order  出故障  out of place 不适当  out of control
point out 指出  pick out 选出  burst out  迸发  figure out  算出,弄明白  cross out 划掉   find out
查出   leave out 省略,删掉   try out  算出,解决  let out 泄露  work out    turn out 结果是  make out
off:
cut off  切断  tear off  撕开  see off  送行  shut off  关掉,关上  show off  炫耀  knock off 把。。。
撞落  pay off  还清  ring off 挂断电话 fall off 跌落,掉下 take off  go off  离开 leave off  停止,中断
to:
belong to    refer to    see to 处理,料理    reply to  答复  object to  反对  point to    stick / hold /
keep to坚持,忠于   agree to 同意  add to    write to    lead to    attend to 处理   contribute to
捐助,贡献,为。。。撰稿  get down to   devote oneself to  be familiar to  drink to 为。。。干杯    dance to
up:
grow up     build up    do up     stay up     sit up    use up     cut up    end up    speed up
clear up    burn up    hurry up    pick up
with:
agree with    begin with     continue with 继续   do with  应付  deal with  对付,处理  fight with
mix with     meet with     play with 玩耍   quarrel with    equip with   用。。。装备
be angry with     be busy with    be crowded with 拥挤着   be connected with  与。。。联系  
be covered with    be content with  对。。。满意  be disappointed with    be engaged with 忙碌于
be filled with     be familiar with  熟悉 be popular with    be patient with    be pleased with   
be satisfied with    be strict with 对。。。严格

三、辨析角度复习词汇:

1.以构成形式为突破口进行辨析:
1).差一冠词,意义不同:
in charge of  负责     in the charge of   由。。。负责
in possession of  占有    in the possession of  由。。。所占有
by sea   乘船          by the sea   在海边
out of question  没问题   out of the question   不可能
at table   在吃饭        at the table   在桌边
2).有无介词,意义不同:
answer     answer for对。。。负责,偿还    search   search for      leave    leave for 离开去某地  
reach      reach for 伸手去拿   enter     enter for 报名参加          run      run for
stand      stand for                   pay       pay for 付钱买某物       prepare  prepare fpr
3).词序颠倒,意义不同:
before long         long before               much too        too much
turn in             in turn                  hand in          in hand 在手边
work hard          hard work                from far  来自远方  far from 离得远,远非
if only             only if
4).是分是和,意义不同:
so as to          so…as to                     sometimes           some times
sometime        some time                    everyday             every day
altogether        all together                   everyone             every one
none            no one
5).差一字母,用法不同:
alone      lonely           asleep    sleep       alike   like    arise产生,发生,出现   rise
await  vt. 等候   wait       across  prep.    cross  v. 横越  adj. 交叉的,易怒的   aloud    loud
2.以词汇意义为突破口进行辨析:
1).意义内涵不同:
destroy , damage , ruin
The boy ruined the beautiful picture with ink on purpose. (不可修复)
His hope of being a singer was destroyed. (不可修复)
The heavy rain damaged a lot of houses.   (可修复)
quiet , silent , still
Be quiet and get on with your work..  安静的,寂静的。表自然环境,表生性安静,不易激动。
You must learn when to speak and when to keep silent.  表沉默的。表示不说话,不弄出声音。
The air is so still that the smoke is rising straight up from the fire.  安静的,不动的。指人表面无动作。
occur , happen , take place
It was unfortunate that this accident should happen / occur.  偶然发生,碰巧。常指不好的事情。
It occurred to him that he should go to see a dentist. happen 可互换。occur to sb. / sth. 思想出现在意识中。
The official opening of the store will take place next week. 指必然会发生的事情,无被动。还有举行活动。
argue , debate , quarrel
The new couple are always quarrelling about so little family income.  指因愤怒而争吵。
The workers argue for the right for a public holiday.  通过提出理由进行论证。
First, let me introduce to everyone both sides of today’s debate.  指正式的辩论。
fit , match , suit
This coat doesn’t suit you.  多指颜色、款式、质地等适合,合乎需要、口味、性格、条件和地位等。
This coat doesn’t fit you.  多指大小、尺寸、形状合适、合身。
This tie doesn’t match this coat.  多指大小、形状、颜色、性质等方面的搭配。
matter , affair , business
I could do nothing to help you since the matter has gotten into such a mess. 侧重麻烦或异常的事情、毛病。
Before going away, he arranged his business affairs.  一般为较重大的事件,也可泛指事务,要用复数。
Tom is the black sheep of his family. He has almost ruined his father’s business.  生意,行业,事情,事务
normal , common , ordinary , usual , regular
As is known to all, snow is common in cold countries.  常见的,一般的。 common sense / knowledge
Are you returning home at the usual time today?  通常,往常,一贯如此。 as usual
Tom Sawyer was an ordinary American boy who kept getting into trouble. 普通的,平常的,平凡的。
A new regular bus service to Tianjin Airport started to operate two months ago. 有规律的,定期的,经常的。
My life was delighted that things had returned to normal once again. 正常的,智力,精神正常的。
opposite , contrary
His house is opposite to mine.  指位置、方向、地位、意义等对立的、相反的。be opposite to 在。。。对面。
This is something quite contrary to my expectations.  主张、看法行为等相反的,含有互相冲突,不一致。
realize , recognize , know
He didn’t realize his mistake until his mother told him. 认识到,意识到,实现,完成。
It’s hard for me to recognize his voice on the phone.  认出,辨认,承认。为短暂性动词,不接时间段作状语。
We have known each other for many years. 知道,了解,熟悉,认识。可接时间段作状语。
scene , scenery , sight , view
The scene after the earthquake was horrible. 指展现在眼前的情景,也可指scenery的一部分。含景物中的人。
He had a chance to see the historical sights of London. 指场景、眼前看到的景观。可指名胜、风景。用复数。
Hangzhou is world-famous for its beautiful scenery.  指某地总的自然风景或景色,尤指美丽的乡间景色。
There is a fine view of the mountain from our hotel.  指从远处或高处看到部分景色。
separate , divide
Please separate the good apples from the bad ones.  把聚合在一起的事物、东西分开,常与from 连用。
Please divide the apple into two parts.   把一个整体分成若干部分,常与into 连用。
struggle , fight
The soldiers fought bravely in the battle.  打仗,战斗,主要指肉体上的对抗。常指打架。
On arriving at the shore, the girl struggled up the cliff towards the light she had seen.挣扎,斗争。指肉体和精神
上的搏斗。暗指在艰难处境中奋力挣扎。
broad , wide
She lost her heart to the soldier with the broad shoulder and the deep voice. 指某物覆盖面的范围,肩、背、胸。
His reading covers a widerange of subjects.  着重指边沿间相隔的距离以及广泛之意。
cause , reason , excuse
I don’t know the cause and effect.  起因,原因,指引起某种结果的必然原因。常与of 搭配。强调事实。
There are many reasons for animals dying out.  理由,原因,用于解释已发生事情的理由,借口。常与for连用。强调逻辑推理,理由不一定真实。
I haven’t done the work well; my excuse is that I have been ill.  指免受指责或推卸责任而找的理由、原因,即借口。常与for 连用。
advantage , benefit , profit
It is to your advantage to invest wisely.    好处或利益,所获之物。---学科空间站
Young people get great benefit from reading.   指各方面的受益。
Their investment has brought them a lot of profit.  多指金钱方面的利益、利润。
bravery , courage
He showed great bravery in saving the drowing child.  勇敢,指处于某种紧迫情况下大胆无畏的行动勇气。
Although blinded by the explosing, he faced the future with courage. 勇气,勇敢,指使人面对危险、困难、痛苦等而不感到惧怕的精神力量。
character , characteristic , quality , personality
He has a changeable character.  品质,性格特色,特征,个人、集体或范畴的区别特征或属性。
What characteristics distinguish the Americans from the Canadians?  指与众不同的特征。
Modesty is one of his good qualites.   品质,指个体的特点,尤指好的品质。
His personality left a deep impression on us.  个性,指个人聚集的品质、行为、脾气、情绪和精神的性格。
circumstance , surrounding , environment , occasion
In normal circumstances I would have resigned immediately.  环境,情形,形势,多用复数。
He didn't pay much attention to his surroundings.  surrounding 只能做形容词。surroundings 为周围的事物,指一个人四周的生活环境。
Children need a happy home environment.   环境,一般用单数,强调环境对人的感受,道德的影响。
He seized the occasion to invited her home for dinner.  时机,机会。
cost , price , charge , expense
Living costs are higher in cities than in the country. 耗费,成本。包括对某事所付出的一切费用、时间、劳力。
It must be done at any price.  价格。指商品出售时所定的价格。还有代价。
How much is the charge for this coffee?  零花钱或给予服务后索要的费用。
His parents decided to cut down his expenses at college.  多用复数,指大量的花费、支出。如求学、旅游。
energy , force , power , strength
Young people usually have more energy than the old.  指人在活动中表现出的生机勃勃的“力”。
He had to use force to get the lid off the can.  指为克服阻力而运用或发挥出来的“力量”。
You can really feel the power of the sun here.  含义最广,包括一切抽象和具体的力。
He hasn’t got enough strength to get out of bed.  指人或物体内在的耐力、抵抗力、气力。
heart , mind
He married the girl of his heart.  侧重情感之心。
We expect there to be more students with good mind.   侧重理智之心。
especially , specially , particularly
The Great Wall had been added to, rebuilt and repaired, especially during the Ming Dynasty.  尤其
These books are specially written for beginners.  指为某一特别目的而做。
He was particularly / especially interested in the stories about kings.   意义相仿,常可通用。
Rice grows well in their county, especially in their village.
2).动作结果不同:
advise   persuade /   look for   find  /  look    see  /  listen   hear  /  try   manage /  treat   cure
3).动作状态不同:
begin   be on      catch fire    be on fire
4).主观客观不同:
receive     accept
5).直接间接不同:
hear     hear of    know   know of     learn    learn of
6).有无—ly的副词不同:
①无—ly的副词表具体意义, —ly的副词表抽象意义。
wide    widely     deep    deeply    high    highly    low    lowly    close   closely
②有无—ly的副词,意思不同:
Near  nearly  hard    hardly     most    mostly     dear    dearly    late    lately    bad   badly
buy , cost , pay , spend , take
buy:指购买。常见搭配:buy sb. sth.;  buy sth. for sb. / sth.
cost:指花钱、时间、劳力等。. Sth. cost sb sth.
pay: 指花钱.常见搭配:Sb. pay money for sth.
spend: :指花钱、时间等。常见搭配:Sb. spend …in doing sth.  / on sth.
take: 主要指花时间。常见结构:It takes / took sb. some time to do sth.
offer , supply , provide
Josie offered him 500 dollars to do the work.
Our farm supplies the market with fruits and vegetables.
The school provided books for the children.
be known as , be known for , be known to , be known in
be known as +名词表示一个人的身份、职业等。   “作为。。。而著名”
be known for +名词表示某人或某物的特点、特长。   “因。。。而著名”
be known to + 表示人的词语。        “为。。。所了解、知道”
be known in +  表地点的词语。

四、拼写角度对比词汇:

1.容易漏写字母的词:
1).易漏写不发音字母的词:
Christmas   cupboard   handkerchief   handsome   exhibition   whisper   neighbor   fasten   doubt
sandwich   Wednesday   climb   comb   
2).易漏写双字母的词:
necessary   quarrel  permission   excellent  interrupt   satellite   address   pressure   committee
personally   command   carriage   arrest   mirror   balloon   pillow   pattern   announce   cattle
cigarette   funny   passenger   rubbish   suddenly
3).易漏写元音字母的词:
familiar   official   temperature   before   interest   bargain   century  anxious   convenient
exercise   experience   material   mountain   restaurant   forehead   soldier  
4).易漏写福音字母的词:
government   autumn   chimney   butcher   bridge   February   knowledge   lawyer  
2.容易多字母的词:
ninth  forty  against  August  similar   habit   altogether  Thursday   college  forbid   library  proud
3.容易混淆的词:
1).词形相似易混淆的词:
peasant 农民    /  present 礼物 、现在   parents  父母
broad 宽的    /  board   木板     /  abroad  在国外
difficult 困难的  /  different  不同的 ;      attract 吸引   /  attack 袭击
explode 爆炸  /  exploit  开采,开发 ---学科空间站   familiar 熟悉的  /  similar 类似
pollution  污染  /  population  人口  /  popularity  人气指数,普及
quality  质量  /  quantity  数量  /  equality  平等  /  inquality  不平等
shadow 影子,阴影   /  shade  阴凉处   /  shed 棚屋,小屋  
2).异性同义易混淆的词:
动词 Vs 名词: advise  advice  /  affect  effect  /  weigh  weight  /  bathe  bath  /  believe  belief  /  recover  recovery  /  discover  discovery  /  dicide  dicision  /  explain  explanation  /  lose loss  /   serve  service  /  succeed  success  /  pronounce  pronunciation  /  enter  entrance  
/ permit permission  /  prepare  preparation  /  argue  argument  /  arrive  arrival  /  choose  choice
/  envelop  envelope
名词 Vs 形容词: health  healthy  /  society  social  /  absence  absent  /  width  wide  /  length  long  /  height  high  /  nature  natural  /  science  scientific  /  honesty  honest  /  anger  angry  /
difficulty  difficult  /  hunger  hungry  /  noise  noisy  /  safety  safe  /  happiness  happy  /  center  central  /  value  valuable  /  youth  young  
形容词 Vs 副词: happy  happily  /  luck  luckily  /  angry  angrily  /  simple  simply  /  true  truly  /  terrible  terribly
3).字母组合ei ie 易混淆的词:
receive , seize , foreign , ceiling , chief , thief , friendship , believe , achievement , twentieth , achieve
4).字母a e 易混淆的词:
advance , advantage , dollar , adventure , grammar , umbrella , operate , separate
5).易将词尾or 写成er 的词:
professor , visitor , tailor , sailor , author , inventor , conductor , emperor , monitor , director , actor , translator
6).字母 s c 易混淆的词:
percent , university , electricity , sense
7).易颠倒字母的词:
modern , garden , true , destroy , silence , Wednesday , secretary , cigarette , calm , according , cruel , fuel , false , fruit , Paris
4.因未掌握语法规则易误写的词:
stomachs ,  thieves ,  photos ,  patatoes ,  tomatoes ,  heroes ,  roofs ,  foxes ,  Germans ,  offered ,  occurred ,  permitted ,  written ,  bitten ,  referred ,  cost ,  studying ,  regretting ,  beginning ,  chatting ,  writing ,  hotter ,  thinner ,  fatter ,  bigger ,


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