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高考英语语法详解 代词

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发表于 2013-5-10 23:07:35 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 gs007 于 2013-5-11 12:12 编辑

高考英语语法代词
用来代替名词、名词短语或句子的词称为代词。代词可分为:人称代词、指示代词、疑问代词、反身代词和不定代词等。
高考重点要求:
1、 物主代词、疑问代词、反身代词和指示代词的基本用法
2、 定代词的指代含义以及数的情况
3、it的基本用法
第一节     知识点概述
一、人称代词
1. 人称代词不仅仅指人,也可以指事或物。
2. 第三人称的人称代词分阳性he(him),阴性she(her)和中性it(it),复数和宾语形式都只有一个形式they和them,不分性别。
3. 选用什么人称代词,取决于所要代替的名词。在数和性上要与所代替的名词保持一致。

二、物主代词
物主代词是用来表示所有关系的,分为形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词两种。形容词性物主代词放在名词前作定语,相当于形容词;名词性物主代词相当于“形容词性物主代词+名词”,相当于名词,可以作主语、表语或宾语。
物主代词的用法:
(1)形容词性物主代词放在名词前作定语。例如:
His pencil box is on the desk.
This is our school.
(2)名词性物主代词作名词用,本身就相当于“形容词性物主代词+名词”,因此,后面不可再加名词。
  作主语:
  Richard’s school bag is blue and mineis black. 理查德的书包是蓝色的,我的书包是黑色的。(mine=my school bag)
  作表语:
  It’s his. 这是他的(东西)。
  作宾语:
  He borrows your dictionary and you may borrowmine. 他借你的字典,你可以借我的。(作及物动词的宾语)
  “of+名词性物主代词”可以放在名词后作定语,表示强调:
  He is a friend of mine. 他是我的一个朋友。
·注意:
试比较下面两句句子:
This is a photoof mine. 这是我的一张照片。(照片是我拥有的,但不一定照的是我本人)
This is a photoof me. 这是一张我本人的照片。(照片上是我本人)

三、反身代词
反身代词用于所强调的动作与动作执行者的关系。通常在句中作表语、宾语和同位语。

四、指示代词
(一)指示代词是具有指示概念的代词
this 这;  that 那;  these 这些;  those 那些;  such 如此的;  same  同样的
(二)指示代词的用法
(1)this、 that、 these、 those 在句子中作主语、宾语、表语或定语。
(2)such 一般在句子中作定语或主语。such“这样的”,such a 这样一个,such as 像…这样的。
(3)same 可作定语、表语、主语和宾语。
例如:
1) That is our English teacher. (主语)
2) This storybook is thicker than that one. (定语)
3) I prefer this (these) to that (those). (宾语)
4) What he likes best is this/that.  (表语)
5) I have never read such an exciting book. (定语)
6) I like such sports as basketball and swimming.  (定语)
7) Such is our trip plan.  (主语) (指上文提到过或刚说过的内容)。
8) She wants the book and I wantthe same. (宾语)
9) We were born on the sameday.  (定语)
·注意:
1)  this、 these 指空间上离说话人较近的人或物,可以与 here 连用;that、 those 指空间上离说话人较远的人或物,可以与 there 连用。
2)  打电话或其他场合,本人这一方用 this 或 these. 反之用 that 或 those。
3)  such 作定语时,如名词前有不定冠词,应把such置于不定冠词之前 。
4)  在 same 之前必须加冠词 the 。

五、疑问代词
1.Who  用于询问别人姓名,身份或关系。What 用于询问别人职业。
2.Which 指的物有范围限制,侧重于哪一个;What  指的物无范围限制,侧重于种类。
3.Whose 用于明确所有者。whom 在口语中,多为 who 代替。

六、不定代词
不是指明代替任何特定名词的代词叫不定代词。常见的不定代词有all, both, each, every, some, any, many, much, (a)few, (a)little,one, ones, either, neither, other, another, no, none以及含有some-, any-, no-等的合成代词(如:anybody, something, no one)。这些不定代词大多可以代替名词,在句子中作主语、宾语、表语或定语。但none和由some, any, no, every 构成的复合不定代词(如somebody等)只能作主语、宾语和表语。而every和no只能作定语。

七、it的用法
(一)作无人称代词
    1. 指代天气、时间、距离、季节和自然现象等。例如:
It rains continually in the south inJune.
       It is a half hour’s walk to the factory.
2. 指代上文中提到的无生命的东西。例如:
   Where is my notebook? It was here just now.
   There is air all around us, but we cannotsee it.
3. 代替有生命但不能或不必分阴阳性的东西(包括婴儿)。例如:
   The baby cried because it was hungry.
   Someone is knocking at the door, who can itbe?
(二)用作强调句,构成强调结构
句型结构:It is(was)+强调部分+that。例如:
   It was last night that they left for H.K.
   It was I that(who) his sister in the parkyesterday.
(三)it作形式主语和形式宾语
it作形式主语和形式宾语是为了使句子平衡,而把真正的主语或宾语置于句子后面。例如:
       I found it interesting to study English.
   It is of great help to master a foreignlanguage.

第二节 实战演练
一、复习时需注意的要点
1.不定代词可作主语,当作主语时,要明确这一不定代词究竟是单数还是复数,以确定它和谓语动词在人和数的一致。
2.不定代词还可作定语。当作定语时,应该注意其所修饰的名词是可数还是不可数,以确定这个名词用单数还是复数。
:Much hasbeen done to fight pollutioneach of them has got a present.
3.many, fewboth用于可数名词,表示复数概念。
4.All, botheach和含有every的复合代词用在否定句中只表示部分否定。
例:Not all thestudents have been to the Austrlia.
   She can’t work out both of the difficult problems.
Everybodycannot work out the problem.
5.Neither,none和含有no的复合代词表示全部否定。
:None of uscan answer the question.
Neither of thequestions is right.

二、历届高考试题分析
1No progress was made in the tradetalk as neither side would accept the conditions of ____.
A. others            B. theother                   C. either                      D. another
答案:B  
【解析】  根据上文neither的提示可以看出所指的应该是两者中的另外一个,所以用the other。这句的意思是:贸易谈判没有取得进展,因为双方都不愿意接受对方的条件。

例2、Shanghai isreally a fascinating city and we've decided to stay for_________ twoweeks.         
A.another      B. other      C. the other      D. other's
答案为A。
【解析】  another意为“又一,再一”,后面如接two, three等数词或few等时,可与复数形式连用,我们可以把two weeks看作一个整体,在原来的基础上再待两星期。而 other,the other用于两者之间的另一个,other's是other的所有格形式,故B、C、D都不可选。

例3、The Parkersbought a new house but_________ will need a lot of work before they can movein.
A.they         B. it         C. one         D. which
答案为B。  
【解析】  it指代前面提到的单数名词。指同一个事物,此句中指a new house;而one指“同名异物”;which引导定语从句,但题干中有连词but,并非主从句,which不妥;A为复数,更易排除。

例4、In fact ________is a hard job for the police to keep order in an important football match.
A.this          B. that         C. there         D. it
答案为D。
【解析】  it在句子中作形式主语。真正的主语是to keep order in animportant football match。由于空格出现在fact的后面,所以一些考生把它当成了同位语从句,而选了that。而实际上,in fact是介词短语作状语,后不能接同位语从句。译文:实际上,在一次重大的足球赛中,对警察来说,维持秩序是一项很难的工作。

例5、Some of thewheat is from Canada. What about ________?
A.another    B. the other       C. others    D. the rest
答案为D。
【解析】  wheat是不可数名词,不能用others代替。the rest既可代可数名词,也可代不可数名词,此处指the rest of thewheat。

例6、If thisdictionary is not yours, _______ can it be?
A. whatelse         B. who else         C. which elses     D. who else’s
答案为D。
【解析】  考查关系代词所有格的用法。who else“其他什么人”,用于主格,宾格。who else's“其他什么人”,用于所有格。  

例7、One of thesides of the board should be painted yellow, and ________.
A. theother is white     B. another white     
C. theother white   D. another is white
答案为C。
【解析】  木板一般只有两面,把一面染成黄色的;另一面染成白色的,考查one…the other结构,由此排除B、D;原句结构为“…the other(should be painted)white,为避免重复可省略。

例8、—He was nearlydrowned once.
—When was _______ ?
— _______was in 1998 when he was in middle school.
A. that;It      B. this; This      C. this; It      D. that; This
答案为A。
【解析】  用that指代上文提到的事,避免了重复;it指代时间。

例9、—Your coffeesmells great!
—It's from Mexico. Would you like_________?
A.it        B. some         C. this         D. little
答案为B。
【解析】  some相当于some of this coffee.

例10、Few pleasurescan equal ________ of a cool drink on a hot day.
A.some       B. any         C. that         D. those
答案为C。
【解析】  这句话的意思是“在炎热的夏天几乎没有任何乐趣能和饮一杯冷饮的乐趣相比。”that在句子中代表the pleasure。一些考生只注意到Few pleasures是复数,而没有注意到这里指的是饮一杯冷饮的乐趣,误填了those。注意:使用代词时一定要弄清楚指代关系。  













第三节 巩固练习
Direction: Beneath each of thefollowing sentences there are four choices marked ABC and D. Choose the best answerthat completes the sentence.

1. I like ___ in theautumn when the weather is clear and bright.
A. this                  B. that                  C.it                     D. one
2. I will never knowwhat was on his mind at the time, nor will ____.
A. anyone             B. anyone else       C.no one              D. no one else
3. Playing tricks onothers is ____ we should never do.
A. anything           B. something         C. everything               D.nothing
4. We needed a newcupboard for the kitchen. So Peter made ____ from some wood we had.
A. it                     B. one                  C.himself             D. another
5. I got the storyfrom Tom and ____ people who had worked with him.
A. every other       B. many others      C. some other       D.other than
6. You can eat foodfree in my restaurant ____ you like.
A. whenever         B. wherever          C. whatever          D.however
7. I intended tocompare notes with a friend, but unfortunately ____ couldn’t spare me even one
       minute.
A. they                 B. one                  C.who                 D. it
8. —One week’s time hasbeen wasted.
—I can’t believe we did all thatwork for ____.
A. something         B. nothing             C. everything               D. anything
9. If you run aftertwo hares, you will catch ______.
A. none              B.neither           C. nothing           D. no one
10. She doesn’t knowanyone here. She has got ___ to talk to.
A. anyone             B. someone           C.everyone          D. on one
11. I have done muchof the work . Could you please finish  in two days ?
A.the rest           B.the other         C.another           D.the others
12. —Which of the threeways shall I take to the village?
       —________ way as you please.   
A.Each            B.Every              C.Any                 D.Either
13. You must never thinkthat you are good at ______while others are good at ______
A. everything …somethingelse          B.everything…nothing
C. all…none                                  D.nothing …all
14. —Do you like _____here?
—Oh, yes. The air, the weather,the way of life. Everything is so nice.
    A. this                B. these            C.that                D.it
15. That' s anunpleasant thing to say about your father after ______ he' s done for you.
    A. something        B. anything           C. all                   D. that
16. I invited Joe and Linda to dinner, but _____ ofthem came.
      A.neither                   B. either               C.none                      D. both
17. The Foreign Minister said, “_______ our hope thatthe two sides will work towards peace. ”
      A. Thisis                   B. There is           C.That is                   D. It is
18. ______ is reported in the newspapers, talksbetween the two countries are making progress.
      A.It                           B. As                    C.That                      D. What
19. Some of the stamps belong to me, while the rest are ______ .
A. himand her            B. his and hers      C. his andher             D. him and hers
20. My motheropened ______of the drawers in turn , trying to decide what he was going to putin ______of them .
A. every…each    B. everyone…every   C. every one …everyone   D. each …each
21. —Hewas nearly drowned once.
—Whenwas _______ ?
—_______wasin 1998 when he was in middle school.
A. that…It      B. this…This           C.this…It         D. that….This
22. —You'realways working. Come on. Let's go shopping.
—_______you ever want to do is going shopping.
A. Anything    B. Something            C.All                D.That
23. —Doyou want tea or coffee?
—________.I really don't mind.
A. Both               B. None                 C. Either          D.Neither
24. Some students will remember these terms asthe most successful ______in the history of our school.
A. ones               B. ones’                    C. one                 D.one’s
25. This new rule may pleasesome, but we don’t expect it to please _____.
A. more               B.other                     C. all                  D. any
26. No agreement was reached during thepeace talk as neither side would give way to _____
A. another                  B. other                      C.the other        D. any other
27. _____ who laughs last laughs best.
A. He                  B. One                      C.That              D.Those
28. Children should be taught how to getalong with _____
A.another                  B. other                     C. others            D.an other
29. These plants are watered _____.
A.each other day   B. every other day               C. each of two days     D.every of two days
30. —Wouldyou like some wine?
—Yes, just _____.
A.little                B. very little               C. a little             D.little bit
31. Tom’s mother kept telling him that he should work harder, but _____didn’t help
A.he                   B.which                   C.she                D.it
32. —Isyour camera like Bill’s and Ann’s ?
—No, but it’s almost the same as _____.
A.her                 B.yours                    C.them              D.their
33. —Haveyou finished your report yet?
—No, I’ll finish in _____ ten minutes.
A. another          B. other                    C. more              D.less
34. I hope there are enough glasses for each guest to have _____.
A.it                    B.those                     C.them              D.one
35. I agree with most of what you said, but I don’t agree with _____.
A.everything       B. anything                C. something      D.nothing
36.Sarah has read lots of stories by American writers. Now she would like to read_____ stories by writers from _____ countries.
A.some…any       B. other…some          C. some…other    D.other…other
37. It is generally considered unwise to give a child _____ he or shewants.
A.however          B. whatever               C. whichever      D.whenever
38. —Canyou come on Monday or Tuesday?
—I’m afraid _____ day is possible.
A. either             B. neither                   C.some             D.any
39. If you want to change for a double room you ‘ll have to pay _____$15.
A.another                  B. other                     C. more              D.each
40. I read about it in some book or other, does it matter _____ it was?
A.where             B.what                     C.how               D.which
41. My brother’s handwriting is better than ______in his class.
A. anyone else       B.anyone else’s           C. anyone’s else   D.anyone’s else’s
42. Some people would rather ride bicycles as bicycle riding has _____ ofthe trouble of taking
buses.
A.nothing                  B. none                     C. some             D.neither
43. Both teams were in hard training, ______ was willing to losethe game.
A.either              B. neither                   C. another          D.the other
44. His camera is more expensive than _____.
A.hers                B.her                        C.it                   D.its
45. _____ of my classmates could work out the maths problem because itwas too difficult.
A.Each               B.Any                       C.No one           D. None
46. _____ have worked together for 10 years.
A.I, you and he     B. I, he and you         C. He, your and I         D.You, he and I
47. The machines made in Chinaare as good as _____ imported from abroad.
A.they                B.those                     C.these              D.ones
48. Listen to _____. There shouldbe no error, no delay, and no waste.
A.that                 B.this                       C.those             D. these
49. _____ of them promised to help me.
A.Every one        B. Everyone               C. Every             D.Everybody
50. She thought _____ a great honour to be invited to speak to us.
A.that    B. this    C. it   D. it is







第二章 代词
1.     C    2.     B    3.     B    4.     B    5.     C    6.     A    7.     A    8.     B    9.     B    10.    D
11.    A    12.    C    13.    B    14.    D    15.    C    16.    A    17.    D    18.    A    19.    B    20.    D
21.    B    22.    C    23.    C    24.    A    25.    C    26.    C    27.    A    28.    C    29.    B    30.    C
31.    D    32.    B    33.    A    34.    D    35.    A    36.    C    37.    B    38.    B    39.    A    40.    D
41.    B    42.    B    43.    B    44.   A    45.    D    46.    D    47.    B    48.    B    49.   A    50.    C


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