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高考英语复习专题-名词

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发表于 2013-5-19 14:42:44 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
一、名词Nouns
           知识要点:
           一、名词的种类:
           1、专有名词:
           1)China, Japan, Beijing, London, Tom, Jack(不加冠词)
           2)the Great Wall, the Yellow River, the People’s Republic of China,
           the United States等。(由普通名词构成的专有名词,要加定冠词。)
           2、普通名词:
           1)不可数名词
           注意:不可数名词前一般不加冠词,尤不加不定冠词:若加a(an)则使之具体化了。
           如:have awonderful time.
           ‚不可数名词作主语,谓语动词用第三人称单数形式。
           ƒ不可数名词一般无复数形式。部分物质名词在表不同类别时,可用复数形 式。
           如:fishes,newspapers, waters, snows……
           | | | |
           各种各样的鱼 各种报纸河湖、海水 积雪
           „有些抽象名词也常用复数,变为可数的具体的事物。如:times时代,works著作,difficulties困难
           …在表数量时,常用“of”词组来表示。如:
           a glass of milk, a cup of tea, two pieces of paper….
           2)可数名词:
           可数名词除用复数形式表一类之外,一般都要加冠词:Abirdcaufly.
           The frog is a kind of hibernating animal.
           Vegetables sold at this shop are usually fresh.
           ‚有复数形式:
           a)规则变化——加“s”或“es(与初中同,)
           b)不规则变化——child(children), foot (feet), tooth (teeth), man (men),
           woman (women), mouse (mice), goose (geese), Englishman (Englishmen),
           phenomenon(phenomena)…
           注意:c)单、复数同形:sheep, deer, Chinese,Japanese, fish(同一种鱼)……。如,
           a sheep, two sheep
           d)只用复数形式:thanks, trousers, goods, clothes, socks, shoes,
           e)形复实单:physics,politics, maths, news, plastics(塑料),means.
           f)形单实复:people (人民,人们),the police, cattle
           g)集合名词如:family,public, group, class等。当作为整体时,为单数;当作
为整体中的各个成员时,为复数。如:
           My family is a big one.
           My family are music lovers.
           h)复合名词变复数时,a)只把复合名词中的主体各词变为复数形式。如:
           sister(s)-in-law嫂子,弟妹;step-son(s)继子;editor (s)-in-chief总编辑。
           b)如没有主体名词则在最后一个词的后面加“s”。如:grown-up(s)成年人,go-between(s)中间人
           c)woman, man作定语时,要与被修饰的名词的数一致。如:a man servantmen servants, a woman
           doctor—women doctors
           二、名词的所有格:
           1、表有生命的东西(人或动物)的名词所有格,一般在名词后加“’s”。如:Mikes bag, Childrens Day, my
           brother’s room, women’s rights…
           注意:1)名词复数的词尾是-s-es,它的所有格只在词后加“s”。如:Teachers Day, the workers
           rest-home(工人疗养院),thestudents reading-room
           2)复合名词的所有格,在后面的词后加“’s”。如:her son-in-laws photo(她女婿的照片)anybody
           elses book(其他任何人的书)
           3)如果一样东西为两人或两人以上共有,则在最后的一个名词后面加“’s”; 如果不是共有,则每个词后都要加“’s”。如:Jane and
           Helens room. 珍妮和海伦的房间(共有). Bills and Toms radios. 比尔的收音机和汤姆的
           收音机(不共有)
           4)表地点(店铺,某人的家等)的名词所有格后面,一般省去它所修饰的名词。如:
           the tailors (裁缝铺) the doctors (诊所) Mr Browns (布朗先生的家)
           5)有些表时间、距离、国家、城镇的无生命的名词,也可加“’s”表所有格。
           如:half an hours walk (半小时的路程)
           Chinas agriculture(中国的农业)
           2、表示无生命的东西的名词一般与of构成词组,表示所有格。如:the cover of the book
           3、表示有生命的东西的名词也可以用of,特别是名词较长,有较多的定语时。如:
           the story of Dr Norman Bethune
           Do you know the name of the boy standing at the gate?
           4、“of词组+所有格”的用法:
           在表示所属物的名词前有冠词、数词、不定代词或指示代词(如:a, two,some, a few, this, that, these,
           those),常用“of词组+所有格”的形式来表示所有关系。如:
           a friend of my fathers 我父亲的一位朋友。
           some inventions of Edisons 爱迪生的一些发明
           those exercise-books of the students学生们的那些练习本。
           【专项训练】:
           1There areonly twelve in the hospital.
           Awoman doctorsBwomen doctors
           Cwomen doctorDwoman doctor
           2Mr Smith hastwo , both of whom are teachers in a school.
           Abrothers-in-lawBbrother-in-laws
           Cbrothers-in-lawsDbrothers-inlaw
           3、——How manydoes a cow have?
           ——Four.
           Astomaches Bstomach Cstomachs Dstomachies
           4Some visitedour school last Wednesday.
           AGerman BGermen CGermansDGermens
            5The of the building are coveredwith lots of .
           Aroofs; leavesBrooves; leafsCroof; leaf Droofs; leafs
           6When thefarmer returned home he found three missing.
           Asheeps Bsheepes Csheep Dsheepies
           7That was afifty engine.
           Ahorse power Bhorses power
           Chorse powersDhorses powers
           8My fatheroften gives me .
           Amany advice Bmuch advice Ca lot of advices Da few advice
           9Mary broke awhile she was washing up.
           Atea cup Ba cup of tea Cteas cup Dcup tea
           10Can you giveus some about the writer?
           AinformationsBinformation
           Cpiece ofinformations Dpiecesinformation
           11I had a cupof and two pieces of this morning.
           Ateas; bread Bteas; breads
           Ctea; breads Dtea; bread
           12As is knownto us all, travels much faster than .
           Alights;sounds Blight; sound
           Csound; lightDsounds;lights
           13She told himof all her and .
           Ahope; fear Bhopes; fear
           Chopes; fearsDhope; fears
           14The risingdid a lot of to the crops.
           Awater; harm Bwater; harms
           Cwaters; harmDwaters; harms
           15、——How faraway is it from here to your school?
           ——It’s about .
           Ahalf an hours drive Bhalf hours drives
           Chalf an hourdrives Dhalf an hourdrive
           16The shirt isnt mine. Its .
           AMrs Smith BMrs Smith
           CMrs Smiths DMrs Smiths
           17Miss Johnsonis a friend of .
           AMarys mother BMarys mothers
           CMary mothers DMarys mothers
           18Last week Icalled at my .
           Aaunt Baunts Caunts Dauntes
           19The beach isa throw.
           Astone Bstones Cstones Dstones
           20I can hardlyimagine sailing across the Atlantic Ocean in five
           days.
           APeter BPeter CPeters DPeters
           【答案】:
           1B 2A
           3C stomach()虽是“ch”结尾,但其发音为[k],所以加“s,不用加“es”。
           4C 5A roof, chief, gulf, belief等词的复数形式,直接加“s”。
           6C 7A 名词作定语一般不用复数。
           8B
           9A 根据句意,打破的应是杯子,而不是茶;名词作定语表类别不用加“’s”。
           10B 11D 12B 13C 14C 15A
           16D 根据上句,此处应是史密斯太太的衬衫。
           17D 18C 19D a stones throw是固定短语,意为“近在咫尺”。
           20B 此句中Peter作动名词sailing的所有格,本应用Peters,但因其在动词后作宾语,所以可用宾格,因此B为正确答案。
            

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 楼主| 发表于 2013-5-19 14:44:07 | 显示全部楼层
复合名词的复数形式:1.一般将主体名词变为复数。father-in-law → fathers-in-law, passer-by→passers-by,
looker-on→lookers-on, editor-in-chief → editors-in-chief
2.无主体名词的在词尾加复数。如:grown-ups, good-for-nothings(无用的人),go-betweens (中间人),look-outs(守望者)
3.由man, woman,构成的复合名词应将前后两个词都变成复数。men-doctors, women-drivers, women-singers
•boyfriends, girlfriends, boy students, girl students
有些名词可以兼作可数名词和不可数名词。
beauty(美,美貌)---a beauty(一个美人/物)
danger(危险)—a danger(一件危险的事/人)
failure(失败)—a failure(一件失败的事/人)
honour(光荣)—an honour(带来荣誉的/或事)
pity(遗憾)—a pity(一件可惜的事)
success(成功)—a success(一件成功的事/人)
surprise(惊奇)—a surprise(一件令人吃惊的事)
pleasure(乐趣)—a pleasure(一件有趣的事)
worry(担心)—a worry(一件令人担心的事)
experience(经验)—an experience(一次经历)
service(服务)—a service(一个服务机构)
英语中有许多对词,一个可数,一个不可数。
a poem(一首诗)     poetry(诗歌总称)
a machine(一台机器)     machinery(机器总称)
a job(一件工作)     work(工作)
a laugh(一个笑声)     laughter(笑声)
a permit(许可证)     permission(允许)
a garment (一件衣裳)     clothing(衣裳总称)
a bag(case) (一件行李)     luggage, baggage(行李)
a loaf (一只面包)     bread(面包)
a hair(一根头发)     hair(头发)
dozen, score
two (many, several) dozen pencils      three dozen of them / these pencils
dozens of students      two score of students      scores of people
word(消息,通知), man(人类),前面不加冠词,也不用复数形式,谓语用单数。
三、名词的格英语中的名词(代词)有三个格:主格、宾格、所有格。
所有格表示所有关系,修饰另一名词,作定语,它有两种形式:一种是由名词词尾加’s构成,另一种是由介词of加名词构成,前者多用来表示有生命的东西,后者多用来表示无生命的东西。
所有格的形式:
1. 一般的名词所有格在后面加 ’s:Mary’s book
2. 以 –s 结尾的复数名词所有格在后面仅加’:Teachers’ Day, the students’ reading-room
3. 以 –s 结尾的专有名词所有格:Engels’s works 或Engels’ works
4. 复合名词的所有格是在其词尾加 ’s: his mother-in-law’s photo
the editor-in-chief’ sopinion
5. 如果一样东西为两人共有,则只在最后一个名词后加’s, 如果是分别所有,则两个名词后都要加’s:Tom and Marry’s father,     Tom’s and Marry’s fathers
6. 在表示“某人家”、“店铺”的所有格时,一般省略它所修饰的名词:at the doctor’s,  at the barber’s,     at Mr. Green’s,     at the tailor’s
7. 有些表示时间、距离、国家、城市、团体、机构等无生命东西的名词,也可以加’s来构成所有格:today’s newspaper     ten minutes’ walk     China’s industry     the station’s waiting-room     the earth's surface     a dollar's worth
8. 凡不能加 ’s 构成所有格的名词,都可以与 of 结成短语,来表示所有格关系。就是有生命的东西的名词也可如此,特别是当这个名词有较长的定语时:the door of our classroom
Do you know the name of the girl standing at the gate?
•在表示所属物的名词前有冠词、数词、不定代词或指示代词时,常使用双重所有格,即“of词组+所有格”结构。这种结构带有一定的感情色彩,表示赞美、厌恶等。
  a friend of her mother’s      a few friends of Tom’s
  that book of Tom’s      several classmates of his
9. 一个名词所有格所修饰的词,如果前面已经提到,往往可以省略,避免前后重复。如:
This is not my pen, but Mary’s.
10. 名词原形直接作定语(不表示所有关系)
room number    coffee cup    shoe factory     geography lesson      colour film tooth brush    power plant     welcome party     heart trouble      food industry apple tree     physics teacher
名词所有格(The Possessive Case of Nouns)   some patterns:
1.I’ll take the risk for friendship’s sake. (为了友谊)
2.She was at her wit’s end. (黔驴技穷)
3.Now they could sing at their heart’s content. (尽情地)
4.We should get the children out of harm’s way. (不受损害)
5.We had best keep them at arm’s length. (保持距离)
6.For goodness’ sake, stop arguing. (看在上帝的份上)
7.Jane got the money’s worth out of the coat. (很合算)


热点:
1.        Please set down your name, age and _____ on the form.
-----OK. Thank you!
A. occupation   B. money     C. business    D. career
2. You have no _____ of what it was like to be there waiting so long.
A. concept     B. conception    C. perception    D. idea
3. Can you shoot that bird at the top of the tree?
---- No, it’s out of _____.
A. range     B. reach    C. control     D. order
4. The government made a(an) ______ of the employment in the public and private sectors.
A. acquisition   B. recreation   C. accommodation  D. investigation
5. I need _______ cloth, for I’m going to make _______ clothes.
A. a lot of; many         B. much; much       C. many; many           D. many; a lot
6. He gained his _______ by printing _______ of famous writers.
A. wealth; work       B. wealths; works      C. wealths; work      D. wealth; works
7. You’ll find this map of great _______ in helping you to get round London.
A. price      B. cost       C. value       D. usefulness
8. The lion is considered the king of the forest as it is a(n) _______ of courage and power.
A. example      B. sign       C. mark       D. symbol
9. If you don’t take away all your things from the desk, there won’t be enough _______ for my stationery.                                 
A. area       B. place      C. room      D. surface
10. According to the recent research, heavy coffee drink and heart attack is not necessarily _______ and effect.
A. reason      B. impact      C. fact      D. cause
11. May I take your order now?” “We’d like three black _______ and two green _______.”
A. coffee, cups of teas      B. coffees, teas      
C. cups of coffee, tea      D. cup of coffees, teas
12. By all _______, you must try every _______ to help him.
A. mean, mean      B. means, means      C. means, mean      D. mean, means
13. Last year the number of students who graduated with a driving licence reached 200,000, a (n) ______ of 40,000 per year.
A average      B number      C amount      D quantity
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 楼主| 发表于 2013-5-19 14:49:52 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 gs007 于 2013-5-19 15:23 编辑

复合名词的复数形式:1.一般将主体名词变为复数。father-in-law fathers-in-law,passer-bypassers-by, looker-onlookers-on,editor-in-chief editors-in-chief2.无主体名词的在词尾加复数。如:grown-ups,good-for-nothings(无用的人),go-betweens (中间人),look-outs(守望者)3.man, woman,构成的复合名词应将前后两个词都变成复数。men-doctors,women-drivers, women-singersboyfriends, girlfriends,boy students, girl students有些名词可以兼作可数名词和不可数名词。beauty(美,美貌)---a beauty(一个美人/)danger(危险)—a danger(一件危险的事/)failure(失败)—a failure(一件失败的事/) honour(光荣)—an honour(带来荣誉的/或事)pity(遗憾)—a pity(一件可惜的事)success(成功)—a success(一件成功的事/)surprise(惊奇)—a surprise(一件令人吃惊的事)pleasure(乐趣)—a pleasure(一件有趣的事)worry(担心)—a worry(一件令人担心的事)experience(经验)—an experience(一次经历)service(服务)—a service(一个服务机构)英语中有许多对词,一个可数,一个不可数。a poem(一首诗)     poetry(诗歌总称)a machine(一台机器)     machinery(机器总称)a job(一件工作)     work(工作)a laugh(一个笑声)     laughter(笑声)a permit(许可证)     permission(允许)a garment (一件衣裳)     clothing(衣裳总称)a bag(case) (一件行李)     luggage, baggage(行李)a loaf (一只面包)     bread(面包)a hair(一根头发)     hair(头发)dozen, scoretwo (many,several) dozen pencils      three dozenof them / these pencilsdozens ofstudents      two score of students      scores of peopleword(消息,通知), man(人类),前面不加冠词,也不用复数形式,谓语用单数。三、名词的格英语中的名词(代词)有三个格:主格、宾格、所有格。所有格表示所有关系,修饰另一名词,作定语,它有两种形式:一种是由名词词尾加’s构成,另一种是由介词of加名词构成,前者多用来表示有生命的东西,后者多用来表示无生命的东西。所有格的形式:1. 一般的名词所有格在后面加 ’sMary’s book2. –s 结尾的复数名词所有格在后面仅加Teachers’ Day,the students’ reading-room3. –s 结尾的专有名词所有格:Engels’s works Engels’ works4. 复合名词的所有格是在其词尾加 ’s hismother-in-law’s photothe editor-in-chief’ sopinion5. 如果一样东西为两人共有,则只在最后一个名词后加’s, 如果是分别所有,则两个名词后都要加’sTom and Marry’sfather,     Tom’s and Marry’s fathers6. 在表示某人家店铺的所有格时,一般省略它所修饰的名词:at the doctor’s,  at the barber’s,     at Mr. Green’s,     at the tailor’s7. 有些表示时间、距离、国家、城市、团体、机构等无生命东西的名词,也可以加’s来构成所有格:today’snewspaper     tenminutes’ walk     China’s industry     the station’s waiting-room     the earth's surface     a dollar's worth8. 凡不能加 ’s 构成所有格的名词,都可以与 of 结成短语,来表示所有格关系。就是有生命的东西的名词也可如此,特别是当这个名词有较长的定语时:the door of ourclassroomDo you know the name of thegirl standing at the gate?·在表示所属物的名词前有冠词、数词、不定代词或指示代词时,常使用双重所有格,即“of词组+所有格结构。这种结构带有一定的感情色彩,表示赞美、厌恶等。  a friend of her mother’s      a few friends of Tom’s  that book of Tom’s      several classmates of his9. 一个名词所有格所修饰的词,如果前面已经提到,往往可以省略,避免前后重复。如:This is not mypen, but Mary’s.10. 名词原形直接作定语(不表示所有关系)room number    coffeecup    shoe factory     geography lesson      colour film tooth brush    powerplant     welcome party     hearttrouble      food industry apple tree     physicsteacher 名词所有格(The Possessive Case of Nouns)   somepatterns:1.I’ll take therisk for friendship’s sake. (为了友谊)2.She was at herwit’s end. (黔驴技穷)3.Now they couldsing at their heart’s content. (尽情地)4.We should getthe children out of harm’s way. (不受损害)5.We had bestkeep them at arm’s length. (保持距离)6.For goodness’sake, stop arguing. (看在上帝的份上)7.Jane got themoney’s worth out of the coat. (很合算) 热点:1.    Please set down your name, age and _____ on theform.-----OK. Thankyou! A. occupation  B. money     C. business    D. career2. You have no_____ of what it was like to be there waiting so long. A. concept    B. conception    C.perception    D. idea3. Can you shootthat bird at the top of the tree?---- No, it’s outof _____. A. range    B. reach    C. control     D. order4. The government made a(an)______ of the employment in the public and private sectors. A. acquisition   B. recreation   C. accommodation  D. investigation5. I need _______cloth, for I’m going to make _______ clothes. A. a lot of; many         B. much; much       C. many; many           D. many; a lot6. He gained his_______ by printing _______ of famous writers. A. wealth; work       B. wealths; works      C. wealths; work      D. wealth; works7. You’ll findthis map of great _______ in helping you to get round London. A. price      B.cost       C.value       D.usefulness8. The lion isconsidered the king of the forest as it is a(n) _______ of courage and power. A. example      B. sign      C.mark       D.symbol 9. If you don’ttake away all your things from the desk, there won’t be enough _______ for mystationery.                                 A. area      B. place      C. room      D. surface10. According tothe recent research, heavy coffee drink and heart attack is not necessarily_______ and effect. A. reason      B. impact      C. fact      D. cause 11. May I takeyour order now?” “We’d like three black _______ and two green _______.”A. coffee, cupsof teas      B. coffees, teas      C. cups ofcoffee, tea      D. cup of coffees, teas12. By all_______, you must try every _______ to help him.A. mean, mean      B. means, means      C. means, mean      D. mean, means13. Last year thenumber of students who graduated with a driving licence reached 200,000, a (n)______ of 40,000 per year.A average      Bnumber      C amount     D quantity
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