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高考常考语法有哪些?高考英语语法总结

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发表于 2013-6-26 00:05:34 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
高考常考语法有哪些?高考英语语法总结


一.非谓语动词
  一.不定式:
  一)不定式的常考形式:
  1) 一般形式:He decided towork harder in order to catch up with the others.
  被动形式: He preferredto be assigned some heavier work to do.
   语法功能: 表示与谓语动词同步发生
  2) 完成形式:He pretendednot to have seen me.
  被动形式:The book issaid to have been translated into many languages.
   语法功能:表示发生在谓语动词之前
   二)不定式常考的考点:
  1)不定式做定语----将要发生
  2)不定式做状语----目的
  3)不定式充当名词功能---Tosee is to believe.
   )不定式的省略
   1)感官动词 see, watch,observe, notice, look at, hear, listen to, smell, taste, feel
  + do  表示动作的完整性,真实性;
  + doing 表示动作的连续性,进行性
   I saw him work in the garden yesterday.
   昨天我看见他在花园里干活了。(强调"我看见了"这个事实)
   I saw him working in the garden yesterday.
   昨天我见他正在花园里干活。(强调"我见他正干活"这个动作)
  " 感官动词后面接形容词而不是副词:Thecake tastes good; It feels comfortable.
   2) 使役动词 have bid makelet 等词后不定式要省略但同1)一样被动以后要还原to
  I 'd like to have John do it.
  I have my package weighed.
  Paul doesn't have to be made to learn.
   3) help help sb do help sb to do help dohelp to do
  )有些动词后只跟不定式如:
  wantwishhopemanagepromiserefusepretendplanofferdecideagreeexpect allow sbto do, cause sb to do , permit sb to do, enable sb to do
  force sb to do. be more likely to do love todo warn sb to do be able to do
  be ambitious to do. begin to do . start to do
   We agreed _______ herebutso far she hasn't turned up yet.(NMET
   1995
  Ahaving met BmeetingCto meet Dto have met KeyC
  ) 有的时候to后面要接-ing形式
  accustom (oneself) to; be accustomed to; faceup to; in addition to; look forward to; object to; be reduced to; resignoneself to; be resigned to; resort to; sink to; be used to; be alternative to;be close/closeness to; be dedication/dedicated to; be opposition/opposed to; besimilarity/similar to.
  三、need/want 后的-ing形式具有被动的意思。其中,want不太常用。
  He needs (a lot of) encouraging.
   . 动名词: 具有动作性特征的名词
  1)是名词 seeing isbelieving
  2)具有动词性特征可以带宾语starving troops is necessary.
  )动名词的形式:
  一般形式:I don't likeyou smoking.
  完成形式:I regret nothaving taken your advice.
  被动形式:This questionis far from being settled.
  ) 动名词常考的点
  1)动名词做主语谓语动词为单数
  2)在动名词和不定式中,做为介词的宾语是动名词
  3)动名词的否定直接在其前加否定词,通过代词的宾格或所有格形式给出逻辑主语.
  I would appreciate_______ back this afternoon.(MET1992
   Ayou to call Byoucall Cyou calling Dyou're callingKeyCyour calling 也对)
  I regret not having taken your advice.
  4)有些词后只能接动名词
  admit; appreciate; avoid; celebrate;consider; contemplate; defer; delay; deny; detest; discontinue; dislike;dispute; enjoy; it entails; escape; excuse; explain; fancy; feel like; finish;forgive; can't help; hinder; imagine; it involves; keep; it means; mention;mind; miss; it necessitates; pardon; postpone; practice; prevent; recall;report; resent; resist; risk; suggest; understand...
   另外还有一些接-ing形式的常用说法:
  it's no good; it's no/little/hardly any/ use;it's not/hardly/scarcely use; it's worthwhile; spend money/time; there's no;there's no point in; there's nothing worse than; what's the use/point...
  5有些词后加不定式和动名词均可
  remember, forget, try, stop, go on, cease,mean后面用不定式和-ing形式,意义截然不容。
  I remembered to post the letters. (指未来/过去未来的动作)
  I remembered posting/having posting theletters (我记得这个动作)
  forgot remember的用法类似。
  I regret to inform you that… 我很遗憾地通知你
  I regretted having left the firm after twentyyears. 为了"二十年前的离开"而遗憾。
  try to 努力 You really musttry to overcome your shyness.
  try -ing 试验 Try practicingfive hours a day.
  I mean to go, but my father would not allowme to. [打算、想]我想去,但我父亲不让我去。
  To raise wage means increasing purchasingpower. [意味着]赠加工资意味着增加购买力。
  prefer的用法:
  我宁愿在这里等。
  3 分词:
  现在分词主动进行,过去分词被动状态
  现在分词的形式:
  1)一般式: Do you seethe man talking to the dean(主任)? (与谓语动词同步发生)
  2)完成形式:Not having madeadequate preparations, they failed. (发生谓语动词之前)
  3)完成被动形式:Havingbeen adapted, the script seems perfect.( 发生谓语动词之前且表示被动)
  过去分词
  1) 过去分词表示被动:Fightno battle unprepared.
2)过去分词的进行形式:You'llfind the topic being discussed everywhere. (强调正在被做)
这三种非谓语动词,都可以构成复合结构,非谓语动词所修饰的成分是这些非谓语动词的逻辑主语。他们之间的一致关系--主动还是被动,往往就是考点。独立主格结构中,要注意的是分词与他前面的逻辑主语之间的主动被动的关系。
二:虚拟语气和情态动词
  情态动词的基本用法及其区别
   最近几年高考试题中常常借助语境来考查情态动词的基本用法及其区别,因此在平时学习时准确理解和掌握情态动词的基本用法十分重要。情态动词的用法复杂多变,在高考试题中,命题者常常利用语境和句子之间意义上的细微差别来考查学生对情态动词的理解和掌握。对于情态动词,除了要求考生能够准确掌握它们的基本用法外,还要充分利用高考试题所设置的语境来分析句子之间所体现的特殊关系。下面就近几年来高考试题中出现的情态动词的考点进行归纳分析,以便同学们复习掌握。
  一、用"情态动词+havedone"结构表示对过去动作的推测,高考试题中常用过去时态或过去的时间状语给以暗示。情态动词的这一用法可以用"对立统一"来概括。
   1.当试题的前句和后句在动作和意义上相互补充说明,且整个句意在动作和时间上是一个整体时,我们可用"统一"关系来解决这样的试题。常见的结构有:
   must have done
   表示对过去动作的肯定推测,常译作"一定做了……",只能用于肯定句中。其否定形式为can'tcouldn'thave done
   疑问式为CanCould...havedone?。
   could might have done:表示对过去发生的动作的可能性推测,常译作"可能做了……"。如:
   1) My sister met him at the Grand Theateryesterday afternoon, so he
   _____ your lecture (上海2000)
   A couldn't haveattended
   B needn't haveattended
   C mustn't haveattended
   D shouldn't haveattended
  本题选A
   2) Jack ____ yet, otherwisehe would have telephoned me (上海'97
   A mustn't havearrived
   B shouldn't havearrived
   C can't havearrived
   D need not havearrived C
   2.当试题的前后句在动作和意义上构成转折关系时,常借助"but,however, instead"等词来表示过去的动作与客观事实不符,这时我们就可以用"对立"关系来解决这样的试题。这种结构常见的有:
   should have done ought to have done:表示过去本应该做某事而实际上没有做。
   should not have done ought not to have done:表示过去本不应该做某事但事实上却做了。
  由句中的连词but可知前后句之间是对立关系,分析题意可知本题应选C
  二、考查情态动词基本用法之间的比较和辨析。最近几年高考试题中常借助具体的语境来考查考生对那些最常见的情态动词的基本用法的理解和掌握,因此在做这样的试题时应认真分析语境中所含的实际意义,并结合情态动词的基本含义和用法做出正确的选择。
   虚拟语气
  " 最自然的虚拟状态:由should/would+原型时态(不含时间只含状态)
  本质上是过去将来时:即,时间固定在过去将来,状态不同:一般、进行、完成、完成进行。
  这时"虚拟语气"的产生往往是因为我们要表达"本来应该……"(而现在却还没有……
  (本来可以……,本来能……
  一些常见的句型中,就会出现这种虚拟语气,而处于从句之中,should常常被省略掉
  o suggest, advise, propose, recommend, plan;
  o demand, order, direct, arrange, command,decide;
  o require, request;
  o think, expect, believe, insist, suspect.
  由于他们的含义中包含"建议,假设,应该"这类的含义,所以,由他们引起的从句中,就会包含有should+原型时态构成的虚拟语气。
  这些动词(以及他们的名次形式,分词形式)引起的从句还有其他的变形
  主语从句,表语从句,同位语从句
  It's suggested that…
  My suggestion is that…
  The only suggestion that...
  The only suggestion I can give you now isthat…
  一些形容词引起的表语从句中,也会有同样的情况
   important; necessary; essential
  It's natural ; strange; incredible that
   a pity; a shame; no wonder
  ? lest, for fearthat, in case 引起的从句中多使用should
" 表达与事实相反
  1. 与现在相反:使用[过去时]
  I wish I were not here! (一般现在'一般过去)
  Suppose we were not here.
  He loved me as if I were his own son. (一般现在'一般过去)
  Hope I weren't always losing things! (现在进行'过去进行)
  If only/If I hadn't been there! (现在完成'过去完成)
  What if I hadn't been waiting right here! (现在完成进行'过去完成进行)
  常考句型:It's (high)time (that)…; would rather (that)…
  这两个从句,只能表达对现在的看法,所以,从句中只有一般过去时。
  2. 与过去相反:过去完成时;
  3. 与将来相反?将来的事情没有发生,所以只能推测且实现可能很小
   I wish he could not smoke any more.
   不过,由于可以用beto表示将来;所以,虚拟语气中经常出现were to;也是CET-4的常考语法点。
  " 虚拟条件句
  o if 部分,做一个与事实相反的假设(所以只有一般过去和过去完成)
  o 主句部分,这是表示基于这个假设的推测,一般使用情态动词would,少数情况下使用could/might/should
  o 注意:两个部分之间,是有逻辑关系,而在两部分的谓语动词时态上,没有必然的联系。
  " 注意,虚拟条件句中的if可以省略,造成were/had提前,产生倒装。
  " 隐含的非真实条件 :由特殊的词给出条件:with, without, in , but for, otherwise, or
  How could I be happy without you? In hisshoes, I would kill myself.
  But for the storm, we would have arrived.
  三、一致关系
  )主谓一致
  1 主谓一致(与插入语无关)
  1主谓的分隔原则:主谓之间可以用定语从句或者省略的定语从句分隔。
  2定语从句中的主谓一致:
  3随前一致:
  n. + together with n2
  as well as
  including
  along with
  with / of
  accompanied with / by
  4就近原则:n1 or n2      +v(就近原则)
  either n1 or n2
  5可数n1 and 可数n2+v(pl)
  不可数n1 and 不可数n2+v(pl)
  例外:war and peaceis… war and peace是一个整体
  但是如果主语表示的是同一个概念,同一人,同一事的时候,谓语动词用单数,这种结构的特征是and连接的两个词只有一个冠词。
  The iron and steel industry is very importantto our country.
  The head master and mathematical teacher iscoming.
  The head master and the mathematical teacherare coming.
  类似的还有:law and orderbread and
  butter black and white  
  To love and to be loved is …
  A lawyer and a teacher are…
  A lawyer and teacher is …
  6随后原则:not A but B /not only A but also B+v.(B一致)
  7百分比结构:most , half ,rest , some , majority , one+persent
  of+n1+v.(由n1决定
  8倒装结构的主谓一致:
  aThere be +n 由名词决定动词
  bAmong , between等介词位于句首引起倒装结构:
  Among / Between …+系动词+n. (由名词决定动词)
  9The+adj的主谓一致:
  a)当表示"一类人"
  b)当表示某一抽象概念时
  The good is always attractive.
  10 To do/doing/主从+vs
  *More than one+n
  many a +n.
  a day or two
  )、倒装
  1 全部倒装
  是只将句子中的谓语动词全部置于主语之前。此结构通常只用与一般现在时和一般过去时。常见的结构有:Upwent the plane = the plane went up.
  1) here, there, now, then, thus等副词置于句首, 谓语动词常用be,come, go, lie, run
  2) 表示运动方向的副词(back,down, off, up)或地点状语置于句首,谓语表示运动的动词。
  注意:1) 上述全部倒装的句型结构的主语必须是名词,如果主语是人称代词则不能倒装。Herehe comes. Away they went. 2) 谓语动词是be的时候,不能倒装。Here it is. Here you are.
  3 形容词短语/分词短语位于句首,引起倒装
   *typical of characteristic of
   *coinciding with + n
  4 表示地点范围的介词短语位于句首,谓语动词为系动词,一定引起倒装
  In…(表语)+系动词+主,主同。
  *在倒装句型答案中不能出现there
  *常考介词要倒装:amongbetween in at beneath
  常考的系动词:belie exist remain rest
  部分倒装
  1 否定 adv位于句首,引起倒装:notonly, not until, hardly, scarcely,
  seldom, rarely, no sooner…than  
  1 not until + 时间 + 主谓倒装,notuntil + 句子+主谓倒装
  2 only+状语位于句首
  only +ad. eg: recently
  prep.短短语  eg: in recently years
  从句  eg: when clause
  only一个词本身不倒装
  3 在比较级结构中,than后面可以倒装,也可以不倒装。
  部分倒装是指将谓语的一部分如助动词或情态倒装至主语之前。如果句中的谓语没有助动词或情态动词,则需添加助动词do,doesdid,并将其置于主语之前。
  ? 1) Neither, nor, so 表示前面句子的共同否定或者肯定,产生倒装,一般主动词提前,谓语动词的其他部分就
  4) as / though引导的让步从句必须将表语或状语提前 (形容词, 副词, 分词, 实义动词提前)。
  as〔让步〕虽然,尽管〔词序倒装。语气比though 强〕。
  Successful as he is, he is not proud. 他虽成功,却不骄傲。
  Women as she is, she's every brave.
  Try hard as he will, he never seems able todo the work satisfactorily.
  注意:A) 句首名词不能带任何冠词。B) 句首是实义动词, 其他助动词放在主语后。如果实义动词有宾语和状语, 随实义动词一起放在主语之前。
  5) 其他部分倒装
  a) so… that 句型中的so; such… that句型中的such位于句首时,需倒装。
  So frightened was he that he did not dare tomove an inch.
  b) 在某些表示祝愿的句型中:Mayyou all be happy.
  c) 在虚拟语气条件句中从句谓语动词有were,had, should等词,可将if 省略,把 were, had, should 移到主语之前,采取部分倒装。WereI you, I would try it again.
  四、复合句
  从句可分为:
  ? 名词性从句' 主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句
  ? 形容词性从句'定语从句
  ? 副词性从句'状语从句
  " 常考的关系代词:that;which; who/whom/whose; where; when; what; as
  " 常见的同位语从句现行词(that之前的抽象名词):fact,idea, news, hope, conclusion, evidence, opinion, problem, thought,understanding…
  " 常用的引导词
  o 时间状语从句:while;when; before; whenever; as; after; till; until; since; once; ever since; as/solong as; as soon as; no sooner… than; hardly… when; scarcely/barely… when; themoment/minute/instant; on (the point of) doing…
  o 地点状语从句:where;wherever
  o 原因状语从句:because;since; as; seeing that; considering that; now that; in that; for fear that;lest; owing to the fact that; because of the fact that; due to the fact that…
  o 方式状语从句:as;as if; as though; how; save that…
  o 比较状语从句:as;than; as… as; not so… as; hardly… than;
  o 结果状语从句:sothat; so… that; such… that; so as to…
  o 条件状语从句:if;unless; in case; so long as; so far as; provided/providing/that; supposing;granted/granting that…; giving that…
  o 让步状语从句:though;although; even if; even though; whether; as; however; no matter (what, how,when); for all that; in spite of the fact that; granted that; regardless of thefact that…
  o 目的状语从句:that;so that; in order that; lest; for the fear that; in case…
  定语从句:
  which 引导的定语从句结构
  1which是关系代词,which后面应该加缺主语或者宾语的句子,
  在这个句子中,which要作成分,作主语或者宾语
  2in which+完整的句子
  which在定语从句中作in的宾语,所以不能作后面句子的主语
  3)名词+of which+谓语动词
  of which来修饰名词,名词在定语从句中作主语,所以后面直接跟谓语动词
   I have five books three of which areborrowed from Mary.
  4)介词+ which +to do 其功能相当于定语从句。
  The key with which to open the door is lost.
  5)定语从句的省略结构:
   1 如果that/ which在定从中作 宾语,可以省略.
  sub+vt+n+(which / that)+sub+vt
  →s+vt+n+s+v
   s+vt+n1+n2+vt
  *当做题时,若发现两个名词在一起,但是似乎连不上,则一定省略that/
  which,则动词为vt,做谓语。
   6)定从的特殊省略
  the way (in which) + 句子
  the reason (why that)+句子        均为完整句
  the time (that / when)+句子
  I do remember the first time (that) Iever heard the sweetest voice in the world.
  By the timethat+句子,句子。
  7)定从的主系省略(主+系可同时省)
  即:which be , whobe ,
   第一、特定的状语从句引导词:althoughthough even though when while if as
第二、从句主语和主句主语必须保持一致;
第三、从句的谓语必须是be动词,主语和be动词同进同出,比如上面的theyare要么同时省略,要么同时保留。
高考英语插入语及插入句的用法
NMET中,插入语屡见不鲜,由于插入语通常与句中其它成分没有语法上的关系,因此给考生的理解带来一定困难。插入语多半用逗号与句子隔开,用来表示说话者对句子所表达的意思的态度。插入语可能是一个词、一个短语或一个句子。
  一、常用做插入语的副词
  indeed的确, surely无疑,however然而, obviously显然, frankly坦率地说,naturally自然, luckily (happily) forsb.算某人幸运, fortunately幸好, strangely奇怪,hone stly真的, briefly简单地说等。
  1. Surely she wont goto China Telecom with you.
  当然她不会和你一起去中国电信。
  2. Strangely he has notbeen to China Unicom. Still more strangely he has notcalled me.
  奇怪,他未来过中国联通。更奇怪,他没给我打电话。
  3. Fortunately I found thebook that Id lost.
  幸亏我找到了已丢失的那本书。
  二、常见的作插入语的形容词或其短语
  true真的, funny真可笑,strange to say说也奇怪, needless to say不用说, most important of all最为重要, worse still更糟糕的等。
  1. Strange to say (True) heshould have done such a thing.
  说也奇怪(或真的),他竟然做出这样的事。
  2. Most important of all youeach overfulfilled your own task.
  更为重要的,你们各自超额完成了自己的任务。
  三、常用作插入语的介词短语求进学习网
www.52qjxx.com
in a few words(或in sum, in short)简而言之, in other words换句话说, in a sense在某种意义上, in general一般说来, in my view在我看来, in his opinion(judgment)按照他的意见(判断), in conclusion总之, in summary概括地说, in fact事实上, in the first place首先, in addition此外, of course当然, to our knowledge据我们所知, to my joy(delight, satisfaction)使我欣慰(高兴、满意)的, to theirsurprise(astonis hment, amazement)使他们惊奇的, to her regret (disappointment)使她遗憾(失望)的, for instance(或example)例如, as a matter of fact事实上等。

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